Get our best tips delivered to your inbox!
By contrast, it is called a defensive, or "soft" block if the goal is to control and deflect the hard-driven ball up so that it slows down and becomes easier to defend.
A well-executed soft-block is performed by jumping and placing one's hands above the net with no penetration into the opponent's court and with the palms up and fingers pointing backward. Blocking is also classified according to the number of players involved. Thus, one may speak of single or solo , double, or triple block. Successful blocking does not always result in a "roof" and many times does not even touch the ball. While it's obvious that a block was a success when the attacker is roofed, a block that consistently forces the attacker away from his or her 'power' or preferred attack into a more easily controlled shot by the defense is also a highly successful block.
At the same time, the block position influences the positions where other defenders place themselves while opponent hitters are spiking. Digging is the ability to prevent the ball from touching one's court after a spike or attack, particularly a ball that is nearly touching the ground.
It is especially important while digging for players to stay on their toes; several players choose to employ a split step to make sure they're ready to move in any direction. Some specific techniques are more common in digging than in passing. A player may sometimes perform a "dive", i. When the player also slides his or her hand under a ball that is almost touching the court, this is called a "pancake". The pancake is frequently used in indoor volleyball, but rarely if ever in beach volleyball because the uneven and yielding nature of the sand court limits the chances that the ball will make a good, clean contact with the hand.
When used correctly, it is one of the more spectacular defensive volleyball plays. Sometimes a player may also be forced to drop his or her body quickly to the floor to save the ball. In this situation, the player makes use of a specific rolling technique to minimize the chances of injuries. Volleyball is essentially a game of transition from one of the above skills to the next, with choreographed team movement between plays on the ball.
These team movements are determined by the teams chosen serve receive system, offensive system, coverage system, and defensive system. The serve-receive system is the formation used by the receiving team to attempt to pass the ball to the designated setter. Systems can consist of 5 receivers, 4 receivers, 3 receivers, and in some cases 2 receivers. The most popular formation at higher levels is a 3 receiver formation consisting of two left sides and a libero receiving every rotation.
This allows middles and right sides to become more specialized at hitting and blocking. Offensive systems are the formations used by the offense to attempt to ground the ball into the opposing court or otherwise score points. Formations often include designated player positions with skill specialization see Player specialization , below. Popular formations include the , , and systems see Formations , below. There are also several different attacking schemes teams can use to keep the opposing defense off balance.
Coverage systems are the formations used by the offense to protect their court in the case of a blocked attack. Executed by the 5 offensive players not directly attacking the ball, players move to assigned positions around the attacker to dig up any ball that deflects off the block back into their own court.
Popular formations include the system and the system. In lieu of a system, some teams just use a random coverage with the players nearest the hitter. Defensive systems are the formations used by the defense to protect against the ball being grounded into their court by the opposing team. The system will outline which players are responsible for which areas of the court depending on where the opposing team is attacking from. There are also several different blocking schemes teams can employ to disrupt the opposing teams offense.
When one player is ready to serve, some teams will line up their other five players in a screen to obscure the view of the receiving team. This action is only illegal if the server makes use of the screen, so the call is made at the referee's discretion as to the impact the screen made on the receiving team's ability to pass the ball. The most common style of screening involves a W formation designed to take up as much horizontal space as possible.
Coaching for volleyball can be classified under two main categories: The objective of match coaching is to win a match by managing a team's strategy. Developmental coaching emphasizes player development through the reinforcement of basic skills during exercises known as " drills.
A coach will construct drills that simulate match situations thereby encouraging speed of movement, anticipation, timing, communication, and team-work. At the various stages of a player's career, a coach will tailor drills to meet the strategic requirements of the team. The American Volleyball Coaches Association is the largest organization in the world dedicated exclusively to volleyball coaching.
There are 5 positions filled on every volleyball team at the elite level. Each of these positions plays a specific, key role in winning a volleyball match. At some levels where substitutions are unlimited, teams will make use of a Defensive Specialist in place of or in addition to a Libero. This position does not have unique rules like the libero position, instead, these players are used to substitute out a poor back row defender using regular substitution rules.
A defensive specialist is often used if you have a particularly poor back court defender in right side or left side, but your team is already using a libero to take out your middles. Most often, the situation involves a team using a right side player with a big block who must be subbed out in the back row because they aren't able to effectively play back court defense.
Similarly, teams might use a Serving Specialist to sub out a poor server. The three standard volleyball formations are known as "4—2", "6—2" and "5—1", which refers to the number of hitters and setters respectively.
The 4—2 formation has four hitters and two setters. The setters usually set from the middle front or right front position. The team will therefore have two front-row attackers at all times. In the international 4—2, the setters set from the right front position. The international 4—2 translates more easily into other forms of offense.
The setters line up opposite each other in the rotation. The typical lineup has two outside hitters. By aligning like positions opposite themselves in the rotation, there will always be one of each position in the front and back rows. After service, the players in the front row move into their assigned positions, so that the setter is always in middle front.
Alternatively, the setter moves into the right front and has both a middle and an outside attacker; the disadvantage here lies in the lack of an offside hitter, allowing one of the other team's blockers to "cheat in" on a middle block. The clear disadvantage to this offensive formation is that there are only two attackers, leaving a team with fewer offensive weapons.
Another aspect is to see the setter as an attacking force, albeit a weakened force, because when the setter is in the front court they are able to 'tip' or 'dump', so when the ball is close to the net on the second touch, the setter may opt to hit the ball over with one hand. This means that the blocker who would otherwise not have to block the setter is engaged and may allow one of the hitters to have an easier attack.
In the 6—2 formation, a player always comes forward from the back row to set. The three front row players are all in attacking positions. Thus, all six players act as hitters at one time or another, while two can act as setters.
So the 6—2 formation is actually a 4—2 system, but the back-row setter penetrates to set. The 6—2 lineup thus requires two setters, who line up opposite to each other in the rotation. In addition to the setters, a typical lineup will have two middle hitters and two outside hitters. After service, the players in the front row move into their assigned positions. The advantage of the 6—2 is that there are always three front-row hitters available, maximizing the offensive possibilities.
However, not only does the 6—2 require a team to possess two people capable of performing the highly specialized role of setter, it also requires both of those players to be effective offensive hitters when not in the setter position.
At the international level, only the Cuban National Women's Team employs this kind of formation. It is also used by NCAA teams in Division III men's play and women's play in all divisions, partially due to the variant rules used which allow more substitutions per set than the 6 allowed in the standard rules—12 in matches involving two Division III men's teams  and 15 for all women's play.
The 5—1 formation has only one player who assumes setting responsibilities regardless of his or her position in the rotation. The team will therefore have three front-row attackers when the setter is in the back row, and only two when the setter is in the front row, for a total of five possible attackers.
The player opposite the setter in a 5—1 rotation is called the opposite hitter. In general, opposite hitters do not pass; they stand behind their teammates when the opponent is serving. The opposite hitter may be used as a third attack option back-row attack when the setter is in the front row: Normally the opposite hitter is the most technically skilled hitter of the team.
Back-row attacks generally come from the back-right position, known as zone 1, but are increasingly performed from back-center in high-level play. The big advantage of this system is that the setter always has 3 hitters to vary sets with. If the setter does this well, the opponent's middle blocker may not have enough time to block with the outside blocker, increasing the chance for the attacking team to make a point.
There is another advantage, the same as that of a 4—2 formation: This too can confuse the opponent's blocking players: A good setter knows this and thus won't only jump to dump or to set for a quick hit, but when setting outside as well to confuse the opponent.
The 5—1 offense is actually a mix of 6—2 and 4—2: In , a new volleyball union was formed in response to dissatisfaction with the organization and structure of professional beach volleyball tournaments. Another controversy within the sport is the issue of the inclusion of transgender players.
There are many variations on the basic rules of volleyball. By far the most popular of these is beach volleyball , which is played on sand with two people per team, and rivals the main sport in popularity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Volleyball disambiguation. This article needs attention from an expert in Volleyball. The specific problem is: WikiProject Volleyball may be able to help recruit an expert. Volleyball at the Summer Olympics. New England Historical Society. Retrieved 2 January Putting his mind to the challenge, Morgan examined the rules of sports such as baseball, basketball, handball and badminton.
Archived from the original on January 27, Northern California Volleyball Association. Archived from the original on July 1, Archived from the original on Archived from the original on September 19, Garden City, New York: Garden City Publishing Company, Inc. Illustration Plate following p. Nudism Comes to America.
Way of Life and Social Structure". The playing court is [ The ball shall be spherical The server must hit the ball within 8 seconds after the first referee whistles for service. National Collegiate Athletic Association. Pettit, Terry; Potts, Kerri Archived from the original on February 24, Cambridge University Volleyball Club.
If you beat the winners, you stay on the court. This can be a bit dicey as it is extremely important to assess the skill level of the court you are challenging on to before you throw down the gauntlet. For example, if the court has a pile of balls at the end line and the average height of the players is over 6'0", avoid this court.
They are pros and they would not take kindly to challengers. Once on a court, keep the games continuous if the beach is busy. It is considered bad etiquette to leave the net empty for long periods of time to take breaks while others are waiting to play. Beach volleyball is typically played with two people per side. There are no specialized positions as with indoor - only a left and right side.
Most beach players are well-rounded and can hit, dig and block. At the higher levels, one player is dedicated to blocking and one to digging, but if you're just out for fun, grab a side and share the responsibilities. A match consists of three sets, or games. The first team to reach 21 points wins the set teams must win by two points.
Two sets wins the match, and the third tiebreaker set, if necessary, is only played to 15 points. Teams switch sides every seven points. There is no rotation between partners, but serving alternates. Lines are considered in and let serves when the ball grazes the net and goes over are legal. Three touches are allowed per side and a block counts as one touch. Sets must be clean no spinning of the ball.
It is best to bump set unless you are an advanced player with hands of gold. Feel free to let the smack talk fly -- volleyball is a social, argumentative sport. Shake off any summer boredom and try something new! Enjoy ocean air, time with friends and a great workout on the beach volleyball court. Shannon Fiack played intercollegiate volleyball at the University of California, Davis.
She has been living in San Diego for the past 6 years and frequently plays beach volleyball in the southern California area. Look for this banner for recommended activities.
Join Active or Sign In.